Analytical use[ edit ] Potassium permanganate can be used to quantitatively determine the total oxidisable organic material in an aqueous sample. For example, a mixture of potassium permanganate and glycerol or pulverized glucose ignites readily. The Mn—O distances are 1. It is now replaced with other oxidizers, due to the instability of permanganate mixtures. This behaviour is also used as a qualitative test for the presence of double or triple bonds in a molecule, since the reaction decolorizes the initially purple permanganate solution and generates a brown precipitate MnO2. In this context, it is sometimes called Baeyer's reagent.
This crystalline material was known as 'Condy's crystals' or 'Condy's powder'. This behaviour is also used as a qualitative test for the presence of double or triple bonds in a molecule, since the reaction decolorizes the initially purple permanganate solution and generates a brown precipitate MnO2. Potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid react to produce some ozone , which has a high oxidising power and rapidly oxidises the alcohol, causing it to combust. Aldehydes and formic acid and formic acid esters also give a positive test. He patented this solution, and marketed it as 'Condy's Fluid'. The overall motif is similar to that for barium sulfate , with which it forms solid solutions. Analytical use[ edit ] Potassium permanganate can be used to quantitatively determine the total oxidisable organic material in an aqueous sample. Safety and handling[ edit ] Potassium permanganate poses risks as an oxidizer. This was more stable, and had the advantage of easy conversion to the equally effective potassium permanganate crystals. Under acidic conditions, the alkene double bond is cleaved to give the appropriate carboxylic acid: Water treatment[ edit ] Potassium permanganate is used extensively in the water treatment industry. Historically it was used to disinfect drinking water   and can turn the water pink. A curious reaction occurs upon addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to potassium permanganate. For example, a mixture of potassium permanganate and glycerol or pulverized glucose ignites readily. If an organic solution of permanganate is desired, "purple benzene" may be prepared, either by treating a two phase mixture of aqueous potassium permanganate and benzene with a quaternary ammonium salt ,  or by sequestering the potassium cation with a crown ether. Although effective, the solution was not very stable. It is used as a regeneration chemical to remove iron and hydrogen sulfide rotten egg smell from well water via a "Manganese Greensand" Filter. It is now replaced with other oxidizers, due to the instability of permanganate mixtures. Other uses[ edit ] Potassium permanganate is one of the principal chemicals used in the film and television industries to "age" props and set dressings. Tests for the presence of manganese exploit the vivid violet color of permanganate produced by these reagents. As the reaction also produces explosive Mn2O7, this should only be attempted with great care. For the standardization of KMnO4 solutions, reduction by oxalic acid is often used. By removing ethylene by oxidation, the permanganate delays the ripening, increasing the fruit's shelf life up to 4 weeks without the need for refrigeration. The MnO2 is fused with potassium hydroxide and heated in air or with another source of oxygen, like potassium nitrate or potassium chlorate. Preparation[ edit ] Potassium permanganate is produced industrially from manganese dioxide , which also occurs as the mineral pyrolusite. Polymer spheres resembling ping-pong balls containing small amounts of permanganate are injected with ethylene glycol and projected towards the area where ignition is desired, where they spontaneously ignite seconds later.
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kmo4/Al /Mg powder
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